A long time in coming (sorry)

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Hello, all, this was one of the first things I mentioned on the board, and I promised to find the text for you. Well, I finally have. In the years since the Second Vatican Council, there have been many documents released by the Church with regard to the Church's teaching on Judaism, and the relationship Christians should have with Jews. Recently, a group of Jewish scholars (one of whom I've had the honour of having as a professor) released the following document:



In recent years, there has been a dramatic and unprecedented shift in Jewish and Christian relations. Throughout the nearly two millennia of Jewish exile, Christians have tended to characterize Judaism as a failed religion or, at best, a religion that prepared the way for, and is completed in, Christianity. In the decades since the Holocaust, however, Christianity has changed dramatically. An increasing number of official Church bodies, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, have made public statements of their remorse about Christian mistreatment of Jews and Judaism. These statements have declared, furthermore, that Christian teaching and preaching can and must be reformed so that they acknowledge Godís enduring covenant with the Jewish people and celebrate the contribution of Judaism to world civilization and to Christian faith itself.

We believe these changes merit a thoughtful Jewish response. Speaking only for ourselves -- an interdenominational group of Jewish scholars -- we believe it is time for Jews to learn about the efforts of Christians to honor Judaism. We believe it is time for Jews to reflect on what Judaism may now say about Christianity. As a first step, we offer eight brief statements about how Jews and Christians may relate to one another.

Jews and Christians worship the same God. Before the rise of Christianity, Jews were the only worshippers of the God of Israel. But Christians also worship the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; creator of heaven and earth. While Christian worship is not a viable religious choice for Jews, as Jewish theologians we rejoice that, through Christianity, hundreds of millions of people have entered into relationship with the God of Israel.

Jews and Christians seek authority from the same book -- the Bible (what Jews call "Tanakh" and Christians call the "Old Testament"). Turning to it for religious orientation, spiritual enrichment, and communal education, we each take away similar lessons: God created and sustains the universe; God established a covenant with the people Israel, Godís revealed word guides Israel to a life of righteousness; and God will ultimately redeem Israel and the whole world. Yet, Jews and Christians interpret the Bible differently on many points. Such differences must always be respected.

Christians can respect the claim of the Jewish people upon the land of Israel. The most important event for Jews since the Holocaust has been the reestablishment of a Jewish state in the Promised Land. As members of a biblically based religion, Christians appreciate that Israel was promised -- and given -- to Jews as the physical center of the covenant between them and God. Many Christians support the State of Israel for reasons far more profound than mere politics. As Jews, we applaud this support. We also recognize that Jewish tradition mandates justice for all non-Jews who reside in a Jewish state.

Jews and Christians accept the moral principles of Torah. Central to the moral principles of Torah is the inalienable sanctity and dignity of every human being. All of us were created in the image of God. This shared moral emphasis can be the basis of an improved relationship between our two communities. It can also be the basis of a powerful witness to all humanity for improving the lives of our fellow human beings and for standing against the immoralities and idolatries that harm and degrade us. Such witness is especially needed after the unprecedented horrors of the past century.

Nazism was not a Christian phenomenon. Without the long history of Christian anti-Judaism and Christian violence against Jews, Nazi ideology could not have taken hold nor could it have been carried out. Too many Christians participated in, or were sympathetic to, Nazi atrocities against Jews. Other Christians did not protest sufficiently against these atrocities. But Nazism itself was not an inevitable outcome of Christianity. If the Nazi extermination of the Jews had been fully successful, it would have turned its murderous rage more directly to Christians. We recognize with gratitude those Christians who risked or sacrificed their lives to save Jews during the Nazi regime. With that in mind, we encourage the continuation of recent efforts in Christian theology to repudiate unequivocally contempt of Judaism and the Jewish people. We applaud those Christians who reject this teaching of contempt, and we do not blame them for the sins committed by their ancestors.

The humanly irreconcilable difference between Jews and Christians will not be settled until God redeems the entire world as promised in Scripture. Christians know and serve God through Jesus Christ and the Christian tradition. Jews know and serve God through Torah and the Jewish tradition. That difference will not be settled by one community insisting that it has interpreted Scripture more accurately than the other; nor by exercising political power over the other. Jews can respect Christians' faithfulness to their revelation just as we expect Christians to respect our faithfulness to our revelation. Neither Jew nor Christian should be pressed into affirming the teaching of the other community.

A new relationship between Jews and Christians will not weaken Jewish practice. An improved relationship will not accelerate the cultural and religious assimilation that Jews rightly fear. It will not change traditional Jewish forms of worship, nor increase intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews, nor persuade more Jews to convert to Christianity, nor create a false blending of Judaism and Christianity. We respect Christianity as a faith that originated within Judaism and that still has significant contacts with it. We do not see it as an extension of Judaism. Only if we cherish our own traditions can we pursue this relationship with integrity.

Jews and Christians must work together for justice and peace. Jews and Christians, each in their own way, recognize the unredeemed state of the world as reflected in the persistence of persecution, poverty, and human degradation and misery. Although justice and peace are finally God's, our joint efforts, together with those of other faith communities, will help bring the kingdom of God for which we hope and long. Separately and together, we must work to bring justice and peace to our world. In this enterprise, we are guided by the vision of the prophets of Israel:

It shall come to pass in the end of days that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established at the top of the mountains and be exalted above the hills, and the nations shall flow unto it . . . and many peoples shall go and say, "Come ye and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord to the house of the God of Jacob and He will teach us of His ways and we will walk in his paths." (Isaiah 2:2-3)

Tikva Frymer-Kensky, University of Chicago David Novak, University of Toronto Peter Ochs, University of Virginia Michael Signer, University of Notre Dame

National Jewish Scholars Project

Signers of Dabru Emet: (as of 01/24/01)

Rabbi Ron Aigen Congregation Dorshei Emet - Reconstructionist Synagogue of Montreal Quebec, Canada

Rabbi Theodore R. Alexander Congregation B'nai Emunah / Lehrhaus Judaica San Francisco, CA

Rabbi Thomas M. Alpert Temple Tifereth Israel Malden, MA

Rabbi Bradley Shavit Artson Dean, Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies Bel Air, CA

Rabbi Lawrence A. Bach Temple Mount Sinai El Paso, TX

Rabbi Jeffrey Ballon, DD Temple Shalom Port Charlotte, FL

Rabbi Shlomo Balter Conservative Synagogue Adath Israel Riverdale, NY

Dr. Leora Batnitzky Princeton University Princeton, NJ

Rabbi William C. Berk Temple Chai Phoenix, AZ

Rabbi Donald Berlin Rabbi Emeritus-Temple Oheb Shalom-Balt./Acting Regional Dir.-UAHC Mid-Atl. Council Washington, DC

Rabbi Tsvi Blanchard CLAL, The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership New York, NY

Dr. David Blumenthal Emory University Atlanta, GA

Rabbi Steven Bob Congregation Etz Chaim Lombard, IL

Rabbi Elizabeth Bolton Congregation Beit Tikvah, Jewish Reconstructionist Federation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Terry A. Bookman Temple Beth Am Miami, FL

Dr. Eugene B. Borowitz Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion New York, NY

Rabbi Gary Bretton-Granatoor Stephen Wise Free Synagogue New York, NY

Rabbi Herbert Bronstein North Shore Congregation Israel Glencoe, IL

Dr. Jonathan Brumberg-Kraus Wheaton College Norton, MA

Rabbi Gustav Buchdahl Temple Emanuel Reisterstown, MD

Rabbi Lee Bycel The Brandeis-Bardin Institute Brandeis, CA

Rabbi Nina Beth Cardin Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Ari Mark Cartun Congregation Etz Chayim Palo Alto, CA

Dr. Robert Chazan New York University New York, NY

Rabbi Samuel Chiel Rabbi Emeritus, Temple Emanuel Newton Centre, MA

Rabbi Kenneth Cohen Exec. Dir./Regional Dir., Seaboard Region, United Syn. For Conservative Judaism Rockville, MD

Dr. Norman Cohen Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion New York, NY

Rabbi Sharon Cohen-Anisfeld Yale Hillel New Haven, CT

Rabbi Lawrence M. Colton Bellport, NY

Dr. Michael J. Cook Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Cincinnati, OH

Rabbi Neil Cooper Congregation Beth Hillel-Beth El Wynnewood, PA

Rabbi Barry Cytron Director, The Jay Phillips Center for Jewish-Christian Learning St. Paul, MN

Rabbi Harry K. Danziger Rabbi Emeritus, Temple Israel Memphis, TN

Rabbi Stanley Davids Temple Emanu-El Atlanta, GA

Rabbi Mona Decker Bolton Street Synagogue Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Geoffrey Dennis Congregation Kol Ami Flower Mound, TX

Rabbi Barry Diamond Temple Emanu-El Dallas, TX

Dr. Elliot Dorff University of Judaism Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Richard E. Dryer Texas Lutheran University San Antonio, TX

Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein International Fellowship of Christians and Jews Chicago, IL

Rabbi Joseph Edelheit Temple Israel Minneapolis, MN

Rabbi Dan Ehrenkrantz President, Reconstructionist Rabbinical Assoc. West Orange, NJ

Rabbi Joseph H. Ehrenkranz Executive Dir., Center for Christian - Jewish Understanding Fairfield, CT

Dr. David Ellenson Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Jerome Epstein CEO & Exec. Vice Pres. - United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism New York, NY

Rabbi Seymour L. Essrog Adat Chaim Congregation Reisterstown, MD

Rabbi Ted Falcon Bet Alef Meditational Synagogue Seattle, WA

Rabbi Morley T. Feinstein Temple Beth-El South Bend, IN

Rabbi Leonid Feldman Temple Emanu-El of Palm Beach Palm Beach, FL

Rabbi Harvey Fields Wilshire Boulevard Temple Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Arnold G. Fink Beth El Hebrew Congregation Alexandria, VA

Rabbi Steven M. Fink Temple Oheb Shalom Baltimore, MD

Dr. Paul Franks University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN

Rabbi Barry Freundel Kesher Israel Congregation Washington, DC

Rabbi Dr. Albert H. Friedlander Dean, Leo Baeck College - Rabbi Emeritus, Westminster Synagogue London, United Kingdom

Rabbi Ronne Friedman Temple Israel Boston, MA

Rabbi Nancy Fuchs-Kreimer Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Wyncote, PA

Rabbi Dov Gartenberg Congregation Beth Shalom Seattle, WA

Rabbi Laura Geller Temple Emanuel Beverly Hills, CA

Dr. Robert Gibbs University of Toronto Toronto, Canada

Dr. Neil Gillman Jewish Theological Seminary of America New York, NY

Rabbi Gordon Gladstone, D.D. Temple Beth Am Bayonne, NJ

Rabbi Gary A. Glickstein Temple Beth Sholom Miami Beach, FL

Rabbi Mark N. Goldman Rockdale Temple Cincinnati, OH

Rabbi Jay Goldstein Beth Israel Congregation Owings Mills, MD

Rabbi Paul Golomb Vassar Temple (Congregation Achim Yisrael) Poughkeepsie, NY

Dr. David Gordis Hebrew College Boston, MA

Rabbi Sam Gordon Congregation Sukkat Shalom Wilmette, IL

Rabbi Daniel Komito Gottlieb Temple Kol Ami, Thornhill Ontario, Canada

Dr. Michael Gottsegen CLAL, The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership New York, NY

Rabbi Alexander A. Greenbaum Adas Yeshurun Synagogue Augusta, GA

Rabbi Irving Greenberg Pres., Jewish Life Network and Chair, United States Holocaust Memorial Council New York, NY

Dr. Frederick E. Greenspahn University of Denver Denver, CO

Rabbi David Greenspoon Adat Shalom Pittsburgh, PA

Dr. Michael R. Greenwald St. Lawrence University Canton, NY

Rabbi Irwin Groner Congregation Shaarey Zedek Southfield, MI

Rabbi Eric Gurvis Temple Shalom of Newton Newton, PA

Rabbi Debra Hachen Congregation Bínai Shalom Westborough, MA

Rabbi Floyd Herman Har Sinai Congregation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Rachel Hertzman Hillel of Greater Baltimore Baltimore, MD

Dr. Susannah Heschel Eli Black Professor of Jewish Studies, Dartmouth College Dartmouth, NH

Rabbi Richard Hirsh Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association Wyncote, PA

Dr. Lawrence A. Hoffman Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion New York, NY

Rabbi Daniel J. Isaak Congregation Neveh Shalom Portland, OR

Rabbi Steven B. Jacobs Kol Tikvah Woodland Hills, CA

Rabbi Samuel K. Joseph Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Cincinnati, OH

Rabbi Bruce Kadden Temple Beth El Salinas, CA

Rabbi Jeffrey A. Kahn Temple Israel of Greater Miami Miami, FL

Rabbi Gerald Kane Temple Beth El Las Cruces, NM

Rabbi Samuel Karff Congregation Beth Israel Houston, TX

Dr. Jan Katzew Union of American Hebrew Congregations New York, NY

Dr. Menachem Kellner University of Haifa Haifa, Israel

Rabbi Allan Kensky Dean, Rabbinical School Ė JTSA New York, NY

Dr. Steven Kepnes Colgate University Hamilton, NY

Dr. Edward Kessler Executive Director, Centre for Jewish-Christian Relations Cambridge, United Kingdom

Rabbi Leon Klenicki Dir., Dept. of Interfaith Affairs, Anti-Defamation League New York, NY

Dr. Michael Kogan MontClair State University Upper MontClair, NJ

Dr. Stanislaw Krajewski University of Warsaw, Poland Co-chair of Polish Council of Christians and Jews Warsaw, Poland

Rabbi Matthew Kraus Williams College Williamstown, MA

Rabbi Charles A. Kroloff Temple Emanu-El, Pres. Central Conference of American Rabbis Westfield, NJ

Rabbi Ronald Kronish Interreligious Coordinating Council in Israel Jerusalem, Israel

Rabbi Irwin Kula Pres.- CLAL, The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership New York, NY

Rabbi Vernon Kurtz North Suburban Synagogue Beth El Highland Park, IL

Rabbi Harold Kushner Rabbi Laureate, Temple Israel Natick, MA

Rabbi Howard Laibson Temple Israel Long Beach, CA

Rabbi Shira Lander Ecumenical Institute of St. Mary's Seminary and University Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Aaron Landes B'nai Jeshurun Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Nicholas de Lange University of Cambridge Cambridge, United Kingdom

Dr. Ruth Langer Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA

Rabbi Eric M. Lankin New Jersey Region-United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism Linden, NJ

Rabbi Barton G. Lee Hillel Jewish Student Center - Arizona State University Tempe, AZ

Professor Sara S. Lee Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Daniel Lehman The New Jewish High School of Greater Boston Waltham, MA

Rabbi Irving Lehrmann Temple Emanu-El Miami Beach, FL

Rabbi Robert B. Lennick President and Chief Executive Officer Religion in American Life Stamford, CT

Rabbi Alan Lettofsky Cleveland College of Jewish Studies Cleveland, OH

Rabbi Robert Levine Congregation Rodeph Sholom New York, NY

Dr. Amy-Jill Levine Divinity School - Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN

Rabbi Elias Lieberman Falmouth Jewish Congregation East Falmouth, MA

Rabbi David Lincoln Park Avenue Synagogue New York, NY

Rabbi Mark Loeb Beth El Congregation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Jonathan Magonet Leo Baeck College - The Sternberg Centre Finchley, London UK

Dr. Charles Manekin University of Maryland - College Park College Park, MD

Rabbi Harry A. Manhoff Temple Beth Sholom San Leandro, CA

Rabbi Marc Margolius Congregation Beth Am Israel Wynnewood, PA

Rabbi Richard Margolis Temple Beth Sholom Melbourne, FL

Rabbi Dow Marmur Rabbi Emeritus, Holy Blossom Temple Toronto, Canada

Rabbi Jeffrey Marx Sha'arei Am: The Santa Monica Synagogue Santa Monica, CA

Rabbi Simeon J. Maslin Congregation Keneseth Israel Elkins Park, PA

Rabbi Michael Mayersohn Temple Beth David Westminster, CA

Rabbi Ralph Mecklenburger Beth El Congregation Fort Worth, TX

Rabbi Batsheva H. Meiri Temple Emanuel Reisterstown, MD

Dr. Paul Mendes-Flohr Hebrew University / University of Chicago Chicago, IL

Rabbi Michael Menitoff Congregation Mishkan Tefila Chestnut Hill, MA

Rabbi Paul J. Menitoff Central Conference of American Rabbis New York, NY

Rabbi Joel Meyers Executive Vice Pres.-The Rabbinical Assembly New York, NY

Dr. Alan Mittleman Dept. of Religion - Muhlenberg College Allentown, PA

Dr. Michael L. Morgan Indiana University South Bend, IN

Dr. Hindy Najman University of Notre Dame South Bend, NY

Rabbi Daniel Nevins Adat Shalom Synagogue/Pres., Michigan Board of Rabbis Farmington Hills, MI

Rabbi Gavriel Newman Beth Jacob Synagogue Baltimore, MD

Marianne Novak Skokie, IL

Vanessa Ochs University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA

Rabbi Michael Oppenheimer Suburban Temple-Kol Ami Beachwood, OH

Rabbi Hayim Goren Perelmuter Co-Dir.-Bernardin Center for Chr. And Jew. Studies at Catholic Theological Union Chicago, IL

Rabbi Rex Perlmeter Baltimore Hebrew Congregation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi W. Gunther Plaut Senior Scholar-Holy Blossom Temple Toronto, Canada

Rabbi Daniel Polish Director, Commission on Social Action, Union of American Hebrew Congregations New York, NY

Dr. Ronald Price Dean, Institute of Traditional Judaism Teaneck, NJ

Dr. Hilary Putnam Harvard University Cambridge, MA

Dr. Ruth Anna Putnam Wellesley College Wellesley, MA

Rabbi Arnold Rachlis University Synagogue Irvine, CA

Dr. Randi Rashkover Cleveland College of Jewish Studies Cleveland, OH

Rabbi John Rayner The Liberal Jewish Synagogue London, UK

Rabbi Joel Rembaum Temple Berth Am Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Seth Daniel Riemer Congregation Adath Israel Middletown, CT

Rabbi Emanuel Rose Congregation Beth Israel Portland, OR

Rabbi Kenneth D. Roseman Temple Shalom - Southern Methodist University Dallas, TX

Rabbi Brant Rosen Jewish Reconstructionist Congregation Evanston, IL

Rabbi David Rosen Anti-Defamation League Jerusalem, Israel

Rabbi Jeremy Rosen Director, Yakar London, United Kingdom

Rabbi Gilbert Rosenthal New York, NY

Rabbi Ronald Roth West End Synagogue Nashville, TN

Rabbi Peter Rubinstein Central Synagogue New York, NY

Rabbi Gila Colman Ruskin Chevrei Tzedek Congregation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Richard B. Safran Emeritus, Achduth Vesholom Ft. Wayne, IN

Rabbi Jeffrey Salkin The Community Synagogue Port Washington, NY

Dr. Norbert Samuelson Arizona State University Tempe, AZ

Rabbi David Sandmel Institute for Christian & Jewish Studies Baltimore, MD

Rabbi David Saperstein Dir., Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism Washington, D.C.

Dr. Marc Saperstein George Washington University Washington, DC

Rabbi Sandy Eisenberg Sasso Congregation Beth - El Zedeck Indianapolis, IN

Rabbi Dennis Sasso Congregation Beth-El Zedeck Indianapolis, IN

Rabbi Herman Schaalman Emanuel Congregation Chicago, IL

Rabbi Mark Schiftan Congregation Ohabai Sholom Nashville, TN

Rabbi Vivian E. Schirn Or Hadash Reconstructionist Congregation Ft. Washington, PA

Rabbi Harold Schulweis Valley Beth Shalom Encino, CA

Rabbi Sidney Schwarz The Washington Inst. For Jewish Leadership and Values Rockville, MD

Rabbi Kenneth I. Segel Temple Beth Israel Scottsdale, AZ

Rabbi Chaim Seidler-Feller Hillel Jewish Student Center Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Isaac Serotta Lakeside Congregation for Reform Judaism Highland, IL

Dr. Claudia Setzer Manhattan College New York, NY

Rabbi Charles P. Sherman Temple Israel Tulsa, OK

Rabbi Mark L. Shook St. Louis University St. Louis, MO

Rabbi Michael Siegel The Anshe Emet Synagogue Chicago, IL

Rabbi Julian Sinclair University of Cambridge Cambridge, United Kingdom

Rabbi Matthew H. Simon Bínai Israel Congregation Rockville, MD

Rabbi Merle Singer Temple Beth El of Boca Raton Boca Raton, FL

Rabbi Ronald B. Sobel Congregation Emanu-El New York, NY

Rabbi Mark L. Solomon Liberal Jewish Synagogue London, United Kingdom

Rabbi Reena Spicehandler Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Mark N. Staitman Rodef Shalom Congregation Pittsburgh, PA

Rabbi Earl S. Starr Temple De Hirsch Sinai Seattle, WA

Rabbi Jacob Staub Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Wyncote, PA

Dr. Sholom Stern Temple Beth El Cedarhurst, NY

Rabbi David Straus Main Line Reform Temple Wynnewood, PA

Rabbi Alvin M. Sugarman Hebrew Benevolent Congregation (The Temple) Atlanta, GA

Dr. Sarah J. Tanzer McCormick Theological Seminary Chicago, IL

Rabbi Joshua S. Taub The Temple-Congregation B'nai Jehudah Kansas City, MO

Dr. David A. Teutsch Pres., Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Wyncote, PA

Rabbi Lennard Thal Union of American Hebrew Congregations New York, NY

Dr. Geza Vermes Professor Emeritus of Jewish Studies, University of Oxford; Fellow of the British Acadmey Oxford, United Kingdom

Rabbi Roy Walter Temple Emanu-El Houston, TX

Rabbi Michael Wasserman Beth El Congregation Phoenix, AZ

Rabbi Sheila P. Weinberg Jewish Community of Amherst Amherst, MA

Rabbi Martin S. Weiner Sherith Israel Congregation San Francisco, CA

Rabbi Mark L. Winer West London Synagogue of British Jews London, United Kingdom

Rabbi Jonathan Wittenberg New North London Synagogue London, United Kingdom

Rabbi Jeffrey A. Wohlberg Adas Israel Congregation Washington, D.C.

Rabbi Mitchell Wohlberg Beth Tfiloh Congregation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Arnold Jacob Wolf K.A.M. Isaiah Israel Congregation Chicago, IL

Dr. Elliot Wolfson New York University New York, NY

Rabbi David Wolpe Sinai Temple Los Angeles, CA

Rabbi Eric H. Yoffie President, Union of American Hebrew Congregations New York, NY

Rabbi Joel H. Zaiman Chizuk Amuno Congregation Baltimore, MD

Rabbi Sheldon Zimmerman President, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Cincinnati, OH

Dr. Laurie Zoloth San Francisco State University San Francisco, CA

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-- Anthony (fides_spes_et_caritas@hotmail.com), March 20, 2001


-- (_@_._), March 20, 2001.

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